A "Gadahara" coin (left) and its Gadahara monogram (right).
Obverse: Several names appears on the obverse, vertically

Right field: The name Gupta ashoka g.svgGupta girnar dd.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka r.svg Ga-ḍa-ha-ra appears vertically in the right field as a monogram.
Middle field: This issue has the name Pi-ro-ysa (Gupta ashoka pi.jpgGupta allahabad ro.jpgGupta ashoka ysa.jpg Pi-ro-ysa), thought to be Peroz III Kushanshah, under the arm of the standing ruler.[1]

Left field: Gupta allahabad k.svgGupta ashoka p.svg Ka-pa appears in the left field, meaning unknown, although this is rather often read Gupta allahabad ku.jpgGupta gujarat ss.svgGupta ashoka nn.svg Ku-shā-ṇa for Kushan.[2][3]
Reverse: Goddess Ardoxsho seated. Minted circa 350-375 CE.

Gadahara (Brahmi: Gupta ashoka g.svgGupta girnar dd.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka r.svg Ga-ḍa-ha-ra), sometimes Gadakhara (Brahmi: Gupta ashoka g.svgGupta girnar dd.svgGupta ashoka kh.svgGupta ashoka r.svg Ga-ḍa-kha-ra),[4] is a name appearing on numerous coins at the end of the Kushan Empire or the beginning of the rule of the Kidarite Huns in the area of Central and Western Punjab in India, in the period circa 350-375 CE.[3][5]

The name Gupta ashoka g.svgGupta girnar dd.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka r.svg Ga-ḍa-ha-ra appears vertically as a monogram in the right field of the coins. Then several name appear under the arm of the ruler, including Yasada, Piroz, Kirada and Samudragupta.[6]

It is not known with certainty whether Gadahara is actually the name of a ruler, or a clan, or a geographical region,[6][5] although modern scholarship considers it is indeed the region of Gandhara.[7]

The appearance of the names of foreign rulers such as the Kushano-Sassanian Piroz (Gupta ashoka pi.jpgGupta allahabad ro.jpgGupta ashoka ysa.jpg Pi-ro-ysa) or the Gupta Empire Samudragupta (Gupta ashoka s.svgGupta allahabad mu.jpgGupta allahabad dr.jpg Samudra) may suggest some kind of suzerainty at a time when the remnants of Kushan power were torn between these two powers.[6][8]

The Gadahara coins may be the last of the Kushan coins before the invasion of the Kidarites.[5] But it is often thought that these coin actually were issued by the Kidarites themselves, who were invading the Kushan realm around that time, although they seem to come chronologically just before the issues of the famous Kidarite ruler Kidara.[2][8][3]

Other coin issues of Gadahara


  1. ^ Tandon, Pankaj (2009). "The Western Kshatrapa Dāmazāda". The Numismatic Chronicle. 169: 177.
  2. ^ a b A Comprehensive History of India. Orient Longmans. 1957. p. 253.
  3. ^ a b c Tandon, Pankaj (2009). "An Important New Copper Coin of Gadahara". Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society (No. 200): 19.
  4. ^ Bhavan, Bharat Kala; Sharma, Savita (1999). Gold Coins of Imperial Kushāṇas and Their Successors in Bharat Kala Bhavan. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Banaras Hindu University. p. 18.
  5. ^ a b c Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Litvinsky, B. A. (1996). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. pp. 165–166. ISBN 9789231032110.
  6. ^ a b c Agrawal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 128. ISBN 9788120805927.
  7. ^ Cribb, Joe. "The Kidarites, the numismatic evidence.pdf" (PDF). Coins, Art and Chronology II, edited by M. Alram et al.
  8. ^ a b "Gadahara. The last branch, in course of time, yielded to Samudragupta, as is borne out by certain coins of this branch having the name Samudra. There is a good deal of similarity between the coins of the Gadaharas and the Kidara Kushanas." in Bajpai, K. D. (2004). Indian Numismatic Studies. Abhinav Publications. p. 112. ISBN 9788170170358.

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