Duke of Cleveland

Arms of the 4th Duke of Cleveland
Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, and her son Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland

Duke of Cleveland is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The dukedoms were named after Cleveland in northern England.

The first creation in 1670 (along with the barony of Nonsuch and the earldom of Southampton) was for Barbara Castlemaine, a mistress of King Charles II. The dukedom was created with a special remainder allowing it to be inherited by her first son, Charles FitzRoy, and his heirs male, then by her third son, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, both being her illegitimate sons by Charles II. Charles FitzRoy was created Duke of Southampton in 1675 and inherited the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709.

His son William inherited both dukedoms in 1730. He died without heirs male in 1774. As there were no heirs male descended from George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland and the 1st Duchess of Cleveland's 2nd son (Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton) and his heirs male had not been made eligible to inherit the dukedom of Cleveland, the title became extinct.

The dukedom of Cleveland was created again on 29 January 1833 for William Vane, 3rd Earl of Darlington, along with the title Baron Raby.[1] He was a great-grandson of Charles FitzRoy, the second Duke of the first creation, and had already been created Marquess of Cleveland on 5 October 1827.[2] For more information on this creation, which became extinct in 1891, and the Vane family, see the Baron Barnard.

Dukes of Cleveland, first Creation (1670)

Other titles (all): Countess of Southampton and Baroness Nonsuch, in the County of Surrey (1670)
  • Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland (1641–1709), a mistress of Charles II
Other titles (2nd onwards): Duke of Southampton, Earl of Chichester and Baron of Newbury, in the County of Berkshire (1675)
  • Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, 1st Duke of Southampton (1662–1730), eldest (illegitimate) son of the 1st Duchess of Cleveland and Charles II
  • William FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Cleveland, 2nd Duke of Southampton (1698–1774), eldest son of the 2nd Duke of Cleveland. He died without issue, and his titles were extinct.

Dukes of Cleveland, second Creation (1833)

Arms of Vane: Azure, three sinister gauntlets (appaumée) or[3] These are a difference of the arms of the Fane family, Earls of Westmorland from 1624, which show: three dexter gauntlets back affrontée, with identical tinctures
Other titles: Marquess of Cleveland (1827), Earl of Darlington, in the County of Durham and Viscount Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the county of Durham (1754), Baron Barnard, of Barnard's Castle in the Bishopric of Durham (1698), Baron Raby, of Raby Castle in the County Durham (1833)
  • William Harry Vane, 1st Duke of Cleveland (1766–1842), great-grandson of the above 2nd Duke
  • Henry Vane, 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1788–1864), eldest son of the 1st Duke
  • William John Frederick Vane, 3rd Duke of Cleveland (1792–1864), second son of the 1st Duke
  • Harry George Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland (1803–1891), youngest son of the 1st Duke. All of his titles except for Baron Barnard became extinct upon his death without issue.

Family tree

FitzRoy & Vane family tree: Dukes of Cleveland
King Charles II
Barbara Palmer,1st Duchess of Cleveland
Duke of Monmouth
Dukes of Buccleuch
Duke of Northumberland
Dukes of Richmond& Lennox
Earl of Plymouth
Dukes of Grafton
Dukes of St Albans
Charles FitzRoy,1st Duke of Southampton,2nd Duke of Cleveland
Earl of Darlington
William FitzRoy,2nd Duke of Southampton,3rd Duke of Cleveland
Lady Grace Fitzroy
Henry Vane,1st Earl of Darlington
Henry Vane,2nd Earl of Darlington
William Harry Vane,3rd Earl of Darlington,1st Duke of Cleveland
Henry Vane,4th Earl of Darlington,2nd Duke of Cleveland
William John Frederick Vane,5th Earl of Darlington,3rd Duke of Cleveland
Harry George Vane (Powlett),6th Earl of Darlington,4th Duke of Cleveland


  1. ^ "No. 19013". The London Gazette. 15 January 1833. p. 97.
  2. ^ "No. 18397". The London Gazette. 18 September 1827. p. 1955.
  3. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.115, which omits appaumée, useful in differentiating from Fane arms; concerning appaumée Cussans (1898) states: "In blazoning a Hand, besides stating what position it occupies, and whether it be the dexter or sinister, and erased or couped, it must be mentioned whether it be clenched or appaumé". (Cussans, John, Handbook of Heraldry, 2nd Edition, London, 1868, p.47[1], p.92)

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